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Publication Detail
Exchange in multi-defect semiconductor clusters: assessment of `control-qubit' architectures
Abstract
We present a variational method to calculate the exchange interactions among donor clusters in a semiconductor. Such clusters are candidates for a so-called control-qubit architecture for quantum information, where the effective exchange coupling between two atoms is controlled by the electronic state of a third. We use a combination of the effective-mass approximation and the quantum defect method; our variational ansatz is particularly suited to cases where an excited state of one of the donors (control) is partially delocalised over several different centres, forming an analogue of an extended molecular orbital. Our method allows calculations of the "on/off" ratios of exchange interactions in such cases. We compare exchange interactions when the control is in the "on" and "off" states, and find that both the magnitude and sign of the exchange interactions may be changed. To rationalize the sign-change, we carry out a simple Green's function perturbation-theory calculation. This simple model qualitatively explains the sign change and illustrates its origins both in ring-exchange processes and in the delocalization of the control electron. We also compute probability distributions for the coupling strengths over the ensemble of clusters, and show that excitation of the control causes narrowing of the distributions along with shifts to larger magnitudes and from anti-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic coupling.
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