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Publication Detail
Dopant control over the crystal morphology of ceramic materials
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
    Article
  • Authors:
    Alfredsson M, Cora F, Dobson DP, Davy J, Brodholt JP, Parker SC, Price GD
  • Publication date:
    01/11/2007
  • Pagination:
    4793, 4800
  • Journal:
    Surface Science
  • Volume:
    601
  • Issue:
    21
  • Print ISSN:
    0039-6028
  • Keywords:
    biomaterial, catalysis, CDTIO3, crystal morphology, FLUX GROWTH, inter-atomic potentials, IONS, microelectronics, OXIDES, PEROVSKITE CATIO3, PURE, SEGREGATION, SIMULATION, single crystal, SULFATE SINGLE-CRYSTALS, surface energy, SURFACE-STRUCTURES
  • Addresses:
    Univ Coll London, Dept Earth Sci, London WC1E 6BT, EnglandRoyal Inst Great Britain, London W1S 4BS, EnglandUniv Coll London, Dept Chem, London WC1H 0AJ, EnglandUniv Bath, Dept Chem, Bath BA7 4AY, Avon, England
  • Notes:
    WoS ID: 000251153900004 Times Cited: 0ArticleEnglishAlfredsson, MUniv Coll London, Dept Earth Sci, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, EnglandCited References Count: 36234IGPO BOX 211, 1000 AE AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDSAMSTERDAM
Abstract
Doping is a common way to activate the behavior of ceramics. Its effect is not limited to the bulk: segregation of dopants to the surfaces also yields a way to modify, and ultimately control the crystal morphology. We propose a model that allows us to calculate the surface energy beyond the Langmuir isotherm for doped and defective surfaces from atomic-level simulations. The model also allows us to account for different compositions between the bulk and surface. Computational materials design can thus be applied to optimize simultaneously the crystal behavior at the atomic (surface structure and composition) and mesoscopic (crystal size and shape) length scales. We exemplify the model with orthorhombic CaTiO3 perovskite doped with Mg2+, Fe2+, Ni2+, Sr2+, Ba2+ and Cd2+ ions, by predicting the effect that different dopants and dopant concentrations have on the crystal morphology. We find that a higher proportion of reactive {021} and {111} surfaces are exposed with the presence of divalent Mg2+, Fe2+ and Ni2+ ions than in the undoped material and in perovskite doped with Ba2+ and Sr2+center dot Cd2+ has only minor effects on crystal morphologies. These findings have important implications for predicting the reactivity of crystals doped with different ions and we show how this can be related to a simple parameter such as the ionic radius. We have tested our newly derived model by comparison with laboratory flux grown single crystals of CaTiO3, (Ni,Ca)TiO3 and (Ba,Ca)TiO3 and find excellent agreement between theory and experiment. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
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