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Publication Detail
GNSS Shadow Matching: The Challenges Ahead
  • Publication Type:
  • Authors:
    Groves PD, Wang L, Adjrad M, Ellul C
  • Publication date:
  • Name of conference:
    ION GNSS+ 2015
  • Conference place:
    Tampa, FL, USA
  • Conference start date:
  • Conference finish date:
GNSS shadow matching is a new technique that uses 3D mapping to improve positioning accuracy in dense urban areas from tens of meters to within five meters, potentially less. This paper presents the first comprehensive review of shadow matching’s error sources and proposes a program of research and development to take the technology from proof of concept to a robust, reliable and accurate urban positioning product. A summary of the state of the art is also included. Error sources in shadow matching may be divided into six categories: initialization, modelling, propagation, environmental complexity, observation, and algorithm approximations. Performance is also affected by the environmental geometry and it is sometimes necessary to handle solution ambiguity. For each error source, the cause and how it impacts the position solution is explained. Examples are presented, where available, and improvements to the shadow-matching algorithms to mitigate each error are proposed. Methods of accommodating quality control within shadow matching are then proposed, including uncertainty determination, ambiguity detection, and outlier detection. This is followed by a discussion of how shadow matching could be integrated with conventional ranging-based GNSS and other navigation and positioning technologies. This includes a brief review of methods to enhance ranging-based GNSS using 3D mapping. Finally, the practical engineering challenges of shadow matching are assessed, including the system architecture, efficient GNSS signal prediction and the acquisition of 3D mapping data.
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