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Publication Detail
The role of protective factors in supporting the academic achievement of poor African American students during the middle school transition
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
  • Authors:
    Gutman L, Midgley C
  • Publication date:
  • Pagination:
    223, 249
  • Journal:
    Journal of Youth and Adolescence
  • Volume:
  • Issue:
  • Print ISSN:
In this study of 62 African American families living in poverty, we examined the main and interactive effects of psychological, family, and school factors on students' grade point average across the middle school transition. Both parent interviews and student surveys were collected, resulting in three major findings. First, students experienced a significant decline in grade point average across the transition from elementary to middle school. Second, students who felt more academically efficacious had higher grade point averages across the transition than did their peers. Third, significant interactions were found between family and school factors. These results suggest that rather than focusing exclusively on either parental involvement or the school environment, the combination of both family and school factors may be most effective in supporting the academic achievement of poor African American students during the transition to middle level schools.
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