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Publication Detail
A Broad Overview and Review of CRISPR-Cas Technology and Stem Cells.
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
    Review
  • Authors:
    Waddington SN, Privolizzi R, Karda R, O'Neill HC
  • Publication date:
    11/02/2016
  • Pagination:
    9, 20
  • Journal:
    Current stem cell reports
  • Volume:
    2
  • Medium:
    Print-Electronic
  • Language:
    eng
  • Addresses:
    Gene Transfer Technology Group, Institute for Women's Health, University College London, 86-96 Chenies Mews, London, UK ; Antiviral Gene Therapy Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witswatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Abstract
The pinnacle of four decades of research, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and genome editing with the advent of clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) now promise to take drug development and regenerative medicine to new levels and to enable the interrogation of disease mechanisms with a hitherto unimaginable level of model fidelity. Autumn 2014 witnessed the first patient receiving iPSCs differentiated into retinal pigmented epithelium to treat macular degeneration. Technologies such as 3D bioprinting may now exploit these advances to manufacture organs in a dish. As enticing as these prospects are, these technologies demand a deeper understanding, which will lead to improvements in their safety and efficacy. For example, precise and more efficient reprogramming for iPSC production is a requisite for wider clinical adoption. Improving awareness of the roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) and genomic epigenetic status will contribute to the achievement of these aims. Similarly, increased efficiency, avoidance of off-target effects, and expansion of available target sequences are critical to the uptake of genome editing technology. In this review, we survey the historical development of genetic manipulation and stem cells. We explore the potential of genetic manipulation of iPSCs for in vitro disease modeling, generation of new animal models, and clinical applicability. We highlight the aspects that define CRISPR-Cas as a breakthrough technology, look at gene correction, and consider some important ethical and societal implications of this approach.
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