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Publication Detail
Three-dimensional reconstruction of Roman coins from photometric image sets
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
  • Authors:
    MacDonald LW, Moitinho de Almeida V, Hess M
  • Publisher:
    Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
  • Publication date:
  • Journal:
    Journal of Electronic Imaging
  • Volume:
  • Issue:
  • Status:
  • Print ISSN:
  • Language:
  • Keywords:
    3D, surface normals, photometric stereo, laser scanning, coins
  • Addresses:
    University College London
    Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering
    United Kingdom
  • Notes:
    This paper is part of the " Special Section on Image Processing for Cultural Heritage" of the Journal of Electronic Imaging. It can be seen on this page with institutional access http://www.isprs-ann-photogramm-remote-sens-spatial-inf-sci.net/III-5/81/2016/isprs-annals-III-5-81-2016.pdf or here http://caps.luminad.com:8080/stockage/stock/LDL-SPIE-JEI-16465SS/JEI-16465SS_online.pdf.
A method is presented for increasing the spatial resolution of the three-dimensional (3-D) digital representation of coins by combining fine photometric detail derived from a set of photographic images with accurate geometric data from a 3-D laser scanner. 3-D reconstructions were made of the obverse and reverse sides of two ancient Roman denarii by processing sets of images captured under directional lighting in an illumination dome. Surface normal vectors were calculated by a “bounded regression” technique, excluding both shadow and specular components of reflection from the metallic surface. Because of the known difficulty in achieving geometric accuracy when integrating photometric normals to produce a digital elevation model, the low spatial frequencies were replaced by those derived from the point cloud produced by a 3-D laser scanner. The two datasets were scaled and registered by matching the outlines and correlating the surface gradients. The final result was a realistic rendering of the coins at a spatial resolution of 75  pixels/mm (13-μm spacing), in which the fine detail modulated the underlying geometric form of the surface relief. The method opens the way to obtain high quality 3-D representations of coins in collections to enable interactive online viewing.
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