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Publication Detail
Identifying functional defects in patients with immune dysregulation due to LRBA and CTLA-4 mutations.
Abstract
Heterozygous CTLA-4 deficiency has been reported as a monogenic cause of common variable immune deficiency (CVID) with features of immune dysregulation. Direct mutation in CTLA-4 leads to defective regulatory T cell function associated with impaired ability to control levels of the CTLA-4 ligands, CD80 and CD86. However, additional mutations affecting the CTLA-4 pathway, such as those recently reported for LRBA, indirectly affect CTLA-4 expression resulting in clinically similar disorders. Robust phenotyping approaches sensitive to defects in the CTLA-4 pathway are therefore required to inform understanding of such immune dysregulation syndromes. Here we describe assays capable of distinguishing a variety of defects in the CTLA-4 pathway. Assessing total CTLA-4 expression levels was found to be optimal when restricting analysis to the CD45RA-negative Foxp3+ fraction. CTLA-4 induction following stimulation, and the use of lysosomal blocking compounds, distinguished CTLA-4 from LRBA mutations. Short term T cell stimulation improved the capacity for discriminating the Foxp3+ Treg compartment, clearly revealing Treg expansions in these disorders. Finally, we developed a functionally orientated assay to measure ligand uptake by CTLA-4, which is sensitive to ligand-binding or trafficking mutations, that would otherwise be difficult to detect and that is appropriate for testing novel mutations in CTLA-4 pathway genes. These approaches are likely to be of value in interpreting the functional significance of mutations in the CTLA-4 pathway identified by gene sequencing approaches.
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Div of Infection & Immunity
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Inst for Liver and Digestive Hlth
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Inflammation
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Div of Infection & Immunity
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Infection, Immunity & Inflammation Dept
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Div of Infection & Immunity
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Div of Infection & Immunity
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Div of Infection & Immunity
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Div of Infection & Immunity
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