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Publication Detail
Belemnites of Valanginian, Hauterivian and Barremian age: Sr-isotope stratigraphy, composition (87Sr/86Sr, δ13C, δ18O, Na, Sr, Mg), and palaeo-oceanography
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
    Article
  • Authors:
    McArthur JM, Mutterlose J, Price GD, Rawson PF, Ruffell A, Thirlwall MF
  • Publication date:
    01/2004
  • Pagination:
    253, 272
  • Journal:
    Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
  • Volume:
    202
  • Issue:
    3-4
  • Status:
    Published
  • Print ISSN:
    0031-0182
  • Keywords:
    palaeo-oceanography, Cretaceous, Barremian, belemnites
  • Notes:
    Imported via OAI, 7:29:01 14th May 2005
Abstract
We present new data on 87Sr/86Sr, δ 13C and δ 18O, and elemental compositions of belemnites from 85 m of Valanginian, Hauterivian and Barremian strata at Speeton, Yorkshire, eastern England. The 87Sr/86Sr data provide a global standard for 87Sr/86Sr isotopic dating, and correlation to the biostratigraphic schemes of NW Europe. Values of 87Sr/86Sr increase from 0.707380±0.000003, at the base of the Hauterivian, to 0.707493±0.000004 in the earliest Late Barremian Paracrioceras elegans ammonite Zone before decreasing thereafter towards an Aptian minimum. The downturn in the elegans Zone coincided with the onset of volcanism on the present Ontong Java Plateau. A linear interpretation of the 87Sr/86Sr profile shows that the relative durations of ammonite zones differ by a factor ≤18. The basal Hauterivian unconformably overlies Valanginian strata; the discontinuity in 87Sr/86Sr across this surface represents a gap in sedimentation of 2.0 myr. In our belemnites (mostly of the genera Hibolites, Acroteuthis, and Aulacoteuthis) the absence of a correlation between δ 18O and δ 13C suggests that strong non-equilibrium fractionation has not affected the isotopic composition of the calcite. Our δ 18O values therefore approximate to a valid record of marine palaeo-temperatures. Specimens of the genus Hibolites have δ 18O values that are 0.4‰ more positive than those of co-occurring specimens of the genus Acroteuthis. This offset may be explained as resulting from small (0.4‰) departures from equilibrium during precipitation of calcite, different depth habitats, or changing temperature in the Speeton sea in the time that elapsed between deposition of our individual belemnites. The averaged belemnite record of 18O through the section shows that seawater warmed from around 11°C at the base of the Hauterivian to a maximum around 15°C in the middle of the Hauterivian regale Zone, and returned to a cooler temperature of around 11°C by the middle of the overlying inversum Zone, a temperature that persisted to the basal Barremian. Through the Barremian, temperature increased to a peak of 20°C in the early Late Barremian elegans Zone then, in the same zone, precipitately and temporarily decreased to around 14°C at about the time of onset of volcanism on the Ontong Java Plateau, before they returned to around 16°C in the uppermost part of the section. In specimens of Aulacoteuthis and Acroteuthis, a good correlation between 18O and the content of Na, Sr, and Mg suggests that incorporation of these trace elements in these genera is largely controlled by temperature. The dependency of concentration on temperature ranges from 7 to 20% per degree Celsius, if equilibrium fractionation of oxygen isotopic composition is assumed, so the Mg, Na and Sr content of these genera may be used as palaeo-temperature proxies. The trace element content of Hibolites shows no relation to stable oxygen isotopic composition and so does not record palaeo-temperature.
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