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Publication Detail
Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Engineered Human Gamma Delta T Cells: Enhanced Cytotoxicity with Retention of Cross Presentation
© 2017 The Authors. Gamma delta T (γδT) lymphocytes are primed for rapid function, including cytotoxicity toward cancer cells, and are a component of the immediate stress response. Following activation, they can function as professional antigen-presenting cells. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) work by focusing T cell function on defined cell surface tumor antigens and provide essential costimulation for robust activation. Given the natural tropism of γδT cells for the tumor microenvironment, we hypothesized that their transduction with CARs might enhance cytotoxicity while retaining their ability to migrate to tumor and act as antigen-presenting cells to prolong the intratumoral immune response. Using a GD2-targeting CAR as a model system, we showed that γδT cells of both Vδ1 and Vδ2 subsets could be expanded and transduced to sufficient numbers for clinical studies. The CAR added to the cells' innate cytotoxicity by enhancing GD2-specific killing of GD2-expressing cancer cell lines. Migration toward tumor cells in vitro was not impaired by the presence of the CAR. Expanded CAR-transduced Vδ2 cells retained the ability to take up tumor antigens and cross presented the processed peptide to responder alpha beta T (αβT) lymphocytes. γδ CAR-T cell products show promise for evaluation in clinical studies of solid tumors. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been successfully expressed in human T cells to redirect their cytotoxic effector function against cancer antigens. A rare subset of T cells called gamma delta T cells is shown to be amenable to genetic modification by CARs and to retain the additional functional characteristic of antigen cross presentation.
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