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Publication Detail
Very delayed lupus nephritis: a report of three cases and literature review.
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
    Review
  • Authors:
    Alexandre AR, Carreira PL, Isenberg DA
  • Publication date:
    12/01/2018
  • Pagination:
    e000241
  • Journal:
    Lupus science & medicine
  • Volume:
    5
  • Issue:
    1
  • Medium:
    Electronic-eCollection
  • Status:
    Published
  • Print ISSN:
    2053-8790
  • Language:
    eng
  • Addresses:
    Department of Internal and Intensive Medicine, Hospital da Luz, Lisboa, Portugal.
Abstract
Lupus nephritis (LN) affects up to 50% of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and is associated with a worse prognosis. LN usually develops within the first 5 years of the onset of the disease. We report three patients with very delayed LN (DLN) diagnosed after 15 or more years after SLE diagnosis. The three patients were non-Caucasian women with adolescent or adult-onset SLE. Each had antinuclear, anti-dsDNA and anti-Ro antibodies. Hydroxychloroquine was prescribed for each. Their disease courses were characterised by sporadic non-renal flares controlled by steroids and, in two cases, by one cycle of rituximab. Unexpectedly, they developed proteinuria, haematuria and lowering of estimated glomerular filtration rate with clinical signs of renal disease. LN was confirmed by renal biopsy. Reviewing them, each showed serological signs of increasing disease activity (rising levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies and fall in C3) that predated clinical or laboratory signs of LN by 1-3 years. Reviewing the literature, we found a lack of knowledge about DLN starting more than 15 years after SLE diagnosis. With the increasing life expectancy of patients with SLE it is likely that more cases of very DLN will emerge.
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