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Publication Detail
Effect of molecular structure of liquid and gaseous fuels on the formation and emission of PAHs and soot
  • Publication Type:
    Thesis/Dissertation
  • Authors:
    Dandajeh HA
  • Date awarded:
    2018
  • Pagination:
    1, 230
  • Status:
    Unpublished
  • Awarding institution:
    UCL (University College London)
  • Language:
    English
Abstract
This thesis reports an investigation into the effects of fuel molecular structure on the emission of exhaust PAHs from a tube reactor and from a diesel engine. The study was underpinned by the results of experiments conducted in the pyrolysis tube reactor aimed at understanding the formation processes of PAHs. The PAHs found in the diesel engine exhaust, both in gaseous state and on the soot particles, were also measured and analysed. The thesis focuses on the US EPA 16 priority PAHs formed from fossil diesel, C1 to C7 model hydrocarbon fuels, and blends of C7 binary and tertiary fuels. Particular attention was paid to the B2 subgroup of PAHs which are possible human carcinogens. Particulate and gas phase PAHs were generated and sampled from the exit of the reactor and the exhaust of the diesel engine. The PAHs from the particulate and gas phase samples were then extracted using an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) system. The PAHs were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The experimental results obtained in the laminar flow, oxygen-free conditions of the reactor showed that, depending on the temperature at which a fuel is pyrolysed, the degree of unsaturation, isomerisation, aliphaticity, aromaticity and carbon number of the hydrocarbon fuels played an important role on the identity and concentration of PAHs formed. The identity of PAHs produced, and their concentration influenced the overall carcinogenic potential of the gaseous and particulate effluent. In the diesel engine, the total PAH concentrations of the fuels decreased with increase in ignition delay and proportions of premixed burn fractions while the influence of fuel composition on the exhaust PAHs was greater than the influence of the combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, heat release rate and premixed burnt fraction.
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