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Publication Detail
C9orf72 and its Relevance in Parkinsonism and Movement Disorders: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature
© 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society Background: The C9orf72 hexanucleotide expansion is one of the latest discovered repeat expansion disorders related to neurodegeneration. Its association with the FTD/ALS spectrum disorders is well established, and it is considered to be one of the leading related genes. It has also been reported as a possible cause of several other phenotypes, including parkinsonism and other movement disorders. Its significance, though outside the FTD/ALS spectrum, is not well defined. Methods: A comprehensive search of the literature was performed. All relevant papers, including reviews and case series/reports on movement disorder phenotypes reported with the C9orf72 repeat expansion, were reviewed. Data on frequency, natural history, phenotype, genetics, and possible underlying mechanisms were assessed. Results and Discussion: In a number of studies, C9orf72 accounts for a small fraction of typical PD. Atypical parkinsonian syndromes, including CBS, PSP, and MSA have also been reported. Features that increase the probability of positive testing include early cognitive and/or behavioral symptoms, positive family history of ALS or FTD, and the presence of UMN and LMN signs. Furthermore, several studies conclude that C9orf72 is the most common cause of HD-phenocopies. Interestingly, many cases with the parkinsonian phenotype that bear an intermediate range of repeats are also reported, questioning the direct causal role of C9orf72 and suggesting the possibility of being a susceptibility factor, while the presence of the expansion in normal controls questions its clinical significance. Finally, studies on pathology reveal a distinctive broad range of C9orf72-related neurodegeneration that could explain the wide phenotypic variation.
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