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Publication Detail
Repeated Sequences in Linear Genetic Programming Genomes
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
  • Authors:
    Langdon WB, Banzhaf W
  • Publication date:
  • Place of publication:
  • Pagination:
    285, 306
  • Journal:
    Complex Systems
  • Volume:
  • Issue:
  • Print ISSN:
  • Keywords:
    genetic algorithms, genetic programming, Evolutionary computation, artificial evolution, repeated sequences, hierarchical building blocks, repetitive elements, microsatellites, unequal crossover, duplication tandemly repeated genes, growth of genomes, repeats finder, SSR tracts, GPengine, Discipulus
  • Notes:
    Extended version of langdon:2004:geccolb
Biological chromosomes are replete with repetitive sequences, microsatellites, SSR tracts, ALU, etc. in their DNA base sequences. We started looking for similar phenomena in evolutionary computation. First studies find copious repeated sequences, which can be hierarchically decomposed into shorter sequences, in programs evolved using both homologous and two point crossover but not with headless chicken crossover or other mutations. In bloated programs the small number of effective or expressed instructions appears in both repeated and non-repeated code. Hinting that building-blocks or code reuse may evolve in unplanned ways. Mackey-Glass chaotic time series prediction and eukaryotic protein localisation (both previously used as artificial intelligence machine learning benchmarks) demonstrate evolution of Shannon information (entropy) and lead to models capable of lossy Kolmogorov compression. Our findings with diverse benchmarks and GP systems suggest this emergent phenomenon may be widespread in genetic systems.
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