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Publication Detail
Trazodone use and risk of dementia: A population-based cohort study
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
    Article
  • Authors:
    Brauer R, Lau C, Hayes J, Man K, Osborn D, Howard R, Wong I
  • Publisher:
    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
  • Publication date:
    05/02/2019
  • Journal:
    PLoS Medicine
  • Volume:
    16
  • Issue:
    2
  • Article number:
    e1002728
  • Status:
    Published
  • Print ISSN:
    1549-1277
  • Notes:
    Ruth Brauer and Wallis C. Y. Lau share joint first authorship on this work.
Abstract
Background: In vitro and animal studies have suggested that trazodone, a licensed antidepressant, may protect against dementia. However, no studies have been conducted to assess the effect of trazodone on dementia in humans. This electronic health records study assessed the association between trazodone use and the risk of developing dementia in clinical practice. / Methods and findings: The Health Improvement Network (THIN), an archive of anonymised medical and prescribing records from primary care practices in the United Kingdom, contains records of over 15 million patients. We assessed patients from THIN aged ≥50 years who received at least two consecutive prescriptions for an antidepressant between January 2000 and January 2017. We compared the risk of dementia among patients who were prescribed trazodone to that of patients with similar baseline characteristics prescribed other antidepressants, using a Cox regression model with 1:5 propensity score matching. Patients prescribed trazodone who met the inclusion criteria (n = 4,716; 59.2% female) were older (mean age 70.9 ± 13.1 versus 65.6 ± 11.4 years) and were more likely than those prescribed other antidepressants (n = 420,280; 59.7% female) to have cerebrovascular disease and use anxiolytic or antipsychotic drugs. After propensity score matching, 4,596 users of trazadone and 22,980 users of other antidepressants were analysed. The median time to dementia diagnosis for people prescribed trazodone was 1.8 years (interquartile range [IQR] = 0.5–5.0 years). Incidence of dementia among patients taking trazodone was higher than in matched users of other antidepressants (1.8 versus 1.1 per 100 person-years), with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.80 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56–2.09; p < 0.001). However, our results do not suggest a causal association. When we restricted the control group to users of mirtazapine only in a sensitivity analysis, the findings were very similar to the results of the main analysis. The main limitation of our study is the possibility of indication bias, because people in the prodromal stage of dementia might be preferentially prescribed trazodone. Due to the observational nature of this study, we cannot rule out residual confounding. / Conclusions: In this study of UK population-based electronic health records, we found no association between trazodone use and a reduced risk of dementia compared with other antidepressants. These results suggest that the clinical use of trazodone is not associated with a reduced risk of dementia.
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