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Publication Detail
Investigation of the repeatability and reproducibility of hydrophone measurements of medical ultrasound fields
Accurate measurements of acoustic pressure are required for characterisation of ultrasonic transducers and for experimental validation of models of ultrasound propagation. Errors in measured pressure can arise from a variety of sources, including variations in the properties of the source and measurement equipment, calibration uncertainty, and processing of measured data. In this study, the repeatability of measurements made with four probe and membrane hydrophones was examined. The pressures measured by these hydrophones in three different ultrasound fields, with both linear and nonlinear, pulsed and steady state driving conditions, were compared to assess the reproducibility of measurements. The coefficient of variation of the focal peak positive pressure was less than 2% for all hydrophones across five repeated measurements. When comparing hydrophones, pressures measured in a spherically focused 1.1 MHz field were within 7% for all except 1 case, and within 10% for a broadband 5 MHz pulse from a diagnostic linear array. Larger differences of up to 55% were observed between measurements of a tightly focused 3.3 MHz field, which were reduced for some hydrophones by the application of spatial averaging corrections. Overall, the major source of these differences was spatial averaging and uncertainty in the complex frequency response of the hydrophones.
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