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Publication Detail
Glutaric Acid Affects Pericyte Contractility and Migration: Possible Implications for GA-I Pathogenesis
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
  • Authors:
    Isasi E, Korte N, Abudara V, Attwell D, Olivera-Bravo S
  • Publisher:
    Humana Press
  • Publication date:
  • Journal:
    Molecular Neurobiology
  • Status:
  • Country:
    United States
  • Print ISSN:
  • PII:
  • Language:
  • Keywords:
    Astrocyte-conditioned media, Astrocytes, Capillary contractility, Cell migration, Glutaric acid, Glutaric acidemia type 1, Pericyte
Glutaric acidemia I (GA-I) is an inherited neurometabolic childhood disease characterized by bilateral striatal neurodegeneration upon brain accumulation of millimolar concentrations of glutaric acid (GA) and related metabolites. Vascular dysfunction, including abnormal cerebral blood flow and blood-brain barrier damage, is an early pathological feature in GA-I, although the affected cellular targets and underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, we have assessed the effects of GA on capillary pericyte contractility in cerebral cortical slices and pericyte cultures, as well as on the survival, proliferation, and migration of cultured pericytes. GA induced a significant reduction in capillary diameter at distances up to ~ 10 μm from the center of pericyte somata. However, GA did not affect the contractility of cultured pericytes, suggesting that the response elicited in slices may involve GA evoking pericyte contraction by acting on other cellular components of the neurovascular unit. Moreover, GA indirectly inhibited migration of cultured pericytes, an effect that was dependent on soluble glial factors since it was observed upon application of conditioned media from GA-treated astrocytes (CM-GA), but not upon direct GA addition to the medium. Remarkably, CM-GA showed increased expression of cytokines and growth factors that might mediate the effects of increased GA levels not only on pericyte migration but also on vascular permeability and angiogenesis. These data suggest that some effects elicited by GA might be produced by altering astrocyte-pericyte communication, rather than directly acting on pericytes. Importantly, GA-evoked alteration of capillary pericyte contractility may account for the reduced cerebral blood flow observed in GA-I patients.
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