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Publication Detail
Experimental and Computational Investigation of the IDDSI Flow Test of Liquids Used in Dysphagia Management.
The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) flow test, using a standard 10-mL syringe, is being adopted in many countries for clinical measurement of the consistency of drinks. The working hypothesis is that thickening drinks to retard flow can be advantageous for individuals who struggle to cope with thin drinks. This study assesses how the IDDSI test relates to rheology and clinical knowledge of physiological flows during swallowing. With no pre-existing analytical solution for internal flow through the syringe, a computational model was designed, incorporating rheometry data from a variety of Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids. The computational model was validated experimentally across the range of liquids but the technique showed limitations in simulating dripping and cohesiveness. Gum-based liquids which were strongly shear-thinning (0.12 < n < 0.25) showed plug-flow characteristics with 90% of the shear occurring in only 22% of the radial dimension. Shear rates were maximal at the nozzle outlet (> 60 times higher than the barrel) and reached 7400/s for the thinnest gum-based liquid. Shear rheology data alone was unable to describe the flow of these drinks. The flow conditions in the test varied according to the type and consistency of liquid, relating to the desired clinical effect.
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