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Publication Detail
Antiphospholipid antibody levels in early systemic lupus erythematosus: are they associated with subsequent mortality and vascular events?
OBJECTIVES: aPL are present in between 20 and 30% of patients with SLE. They can cause vascular events (VE) or pregnancy morbidity. aCL and anti-beta-2-glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI) are measured in clinical practice. Domain I (DI) of β2GPI is the main site for aPL binding. We investigated the prevalence of IgG anti-DI, aCL and anti-β2GPI antibodies in early SLE and their association with mortality and development of VE. METHODS: Samples from 501 patients with SLE that had been obtained and stored early during their disease were tested for IgG anti-DI, aCL and anti-β2GPI antibodies by ELISA. LA status and history of VE were obtained by reviewing medical records. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to investigate mortality and occurrence of VE, comparing groups with and without aPL in early disease. RESULTS: Of 501 patients, 190 (38%) had at least one of these aPL, of whom 112 had anti-DI alone. Of 276 patients with complete vascular history, 83 had experienced VE. The 39 patients who were double or triple-ELISA-positive for any combination of the three aPL were more likely to have or develop lupus anticoagulant (P<0.0001) than those who were single-ELISA-positive or negative. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, they showed a trend towards developing more VE (P = 0.06). CONCLUSION: IgG anti-DI antibodies were present in early serum samples from 29% of patients and were more common than IgG aCL or anti-β2GPI. There was some evidence suggesting that double or triple-ELISA-positivity for these antibodies identified a group with worse outcomes.
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