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Publication Detail
Cardiac biomarkers are prognostic in systemic light chain amyloidosis with no cardiac involvement by standard criteria.
Abstract
Patients with systemic AL amyloidosis with no evidence of cardiac involvement by consensus criteria have excellent survival, but 20% will die within 5 years of diagnosis and prognostic factors remain poorly characterised. We report the outcomes of 378 prospectively followed Mayo Stage I patients (N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide <332 ng/L, high sensitivity cardiac troponin <55ng/L). The median presenting N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide was 161 ng/L, high sensitivity cardiac troponin 10 ng/L, creatinine 76 ╬╝mol/L and mean left ventricular septal wall thickness, 10mm. Median follow up was 42 (1-117 months), with 71 deaths; median overall survival was not reached (78% survival at 5 years). Although no patients had cardiac involvement by echocardiogram, a proportion (N=25/90, 28%) had cardiac involvement by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Age, autonomic nervous system involvement, N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide >152 ng/L, high sensitivity cardiac troponin >10 ng/L and cardiac involvement by magnetic resonance imaging were predictive for survival; on multivariate analysis only N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide >152 ng/L (p=<0.008, HR 3.180, CI=1.349-7.495) and cardiac involvement on magnetic resonance imaging (p=0.026, HR=5.360, CI=1.219-23.574) were prognostic. At 5 years, 70% of patients with N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide >152 ng/L were alive. In conclusion, N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide is prognostic for survival in patients with no cardiac involvement by consensus criteria and cardiac involvement is detected by magnetic resonance imaging in such cases. This suggests that N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide thresholds for cardiac involvement in AL amyloidosis may need to be redefined.
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