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Publication Detail
Atomistic Modeling of Scattering Curves for Human IgG1/4 Reveals New Structure-Function Insights.
Small angle x-ray and neutron scattering are techniques that give solution structures for large macromolecules. The creation of physically realistic atomistic models from known high-resolution structures to determine joint x-ray and neutron scattering best-fit structures offers a, to our knowledge, new method that significantly enhances the utility of scattering. To validate this approach, we determined scattering curves for two human antibody subclasses, immunoglobulin G (IgG) 1 and IgG4, on five different x-ray and neutron instruments to show that these were reproducible, then we modeled these by Monte Carlo simulations. The two antibodies have different hinge lengths that connect their antigen-binding Fab and effector-binding Fc regions. Starting from 231,492 and 190,437 acceptable conformations for IgG1 and IgG4, respectively, joint x-ray and neutron scattering curve fits gave low goodness-of-fit R factors for 28 IgG1 and 2748 IgG4 structures that satisfied the disulphide connectivity in their hinges. These joint best-fit structures showed that the best-fit IgG1 models had a greater separation between the centers of their Fab regions than those for IgG4, in agreement with their hinge lengths of 15 and 12 residues, respectively. The resulting asymmetric IgG1 solution structures resembled its crystal structure. Both symmetric and asymmetric solution structures were determined for IgG4. Docking simulations with our best-fit IgG4 structures showed greater steric clashes with its receptor to explain its weaker FcγRI receptor binding compared to our best-fit IgG1 structures with fewer clashes and stronger receptor binding. Compared to earlier approaches for fitting molecular antibody structures by solution scattering, we conclude that this joint fit approach based on x-ray and neutron scattering data, combined with Monte Carlo simulations, significantly improved our understanding of antibody solution structures. The atomistic nature of the output extended our understanding of known functional differences in Fc receptor binding between IgG1 and IgG4.
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