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Publication Detail
2015 Nepal Earthquake: Seismic Performance and Post-Earthquake Reconstruction of Stone Masonry Buildings
  • Publication Type:
  • Authors:
    Adhikari R, D'Ayala D
  • Publisher:
    EEFIT, The Institution of Structural Engineers
  • publication date:
  • Place of publication:
    London, UK
  • Commisioning body:
    University College London
  • Keywords:
    2015 Nepal Earthquake, Gorkha Earthquake, Stone Masonry, Low-Strength Masonry, Applied Element Method, Masonry Modelling, Reconstruction
Despite economic and human losses, disasters teach us very important lessons. It is hence important to collect, document, analyse and understand the causes and impacts of natural disasters such as an earthquake to minimize losses in future disastrous events. This report is an outcome of the analysis of data and information related to the damage and post-earthquake reconstruction of residential buildings, collected during the field survey by the authors, in light of 2015 Nepal earthquake sequence. First, the extent of damage sustained by the residential buildings in 2015 Nepal earthquake sequence is presented, focusing on stone in mud mortar masonry typology as this was the highest contributor to the seismic damage. As the reconstruction is currently ongoing and the Nepal government aims to use this opportunity to increase the seismic resilience of communities, some pressing issues in the post-earthquake reconstruction in rural mountainous areas such as building usability/functionality, code-compliance and construction quality are discussed. Then, the range of prevalent typologies of pre- and post-earthquake residential houses and their distribution is presented. Since uncoursed random rubble stone masonry in mud mortar is the most common construction type in the country, even in the post-earthquake reconstruction, the construction characteristics of these typologies are discussed in detail. The results of non-linear seismic analysis on the pre- and post-earthquake stone in mud mortar masonry typologies are then presented and discussed in terms of capacity curves and failure mechanisms. As per the seismic design code of Nepal, site specific seismic performance assessment is conducted to understand the seismic design levels of these constructions. Finally, seismic performance assessment for a number of ground motions is conducted on both pre- and post- earthquake stone in mud mortar masonry typologies in order to derive seismic fragility and vulnerability functions, considering the uncertainty in ground motions and material quality, which are useful tools in understanding the associated seismic risk as well as for developing effective seismic strengthening measures to reduce risk in future earthquakes.
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