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Publication Detail
THAP1 mutations (DYT6) are an additional cause of early-onset dystonia.
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
    Journal Article
  • Authors:
    Houlden H, Schneider SA, Paudel R, Melchers A, Schwingenschuh P, Edwards M, Hardy J, Bhatia KP
  • Publication date:
  • Pagination:
    846, 850
  • Journal:
  • Volume:
  • Issue:
  • Status:
  • Country:
    United States
  • PII:
  • Language:
  • Keywords:
    Adult, Age of Onset, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins, Chi-Square Distribution, DNA Mutational Analysis, DNA-Binding Proteins, Dystonia, Family Health, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Nuclear Proteins, Polymorphism, Genetic
BACKGROUND: The clinical phenotype of DYT6 consists mainly of primary craniocervical dystonia. Recently, the THAP1 gene was identified as the cause of DYT6, where a total of 13 mutations have been identified in Amish-Mennonite and European families. METHODS: We sequenced the THAP1 gene in a series of 362 British, genetically undetermined, primary dystonia patients (78 with focal, 186 with segmental, and 98 with generalized dystonia) and in 28 dystonia-manifesting DYT1 patients and 176 normal control individuals. RESULTS: Nine coding mutations were identified in the THAP1 gene. Two were small deletions, 2 were nonsense, and 5 were missense. Eight mutations were heterozygous, and 1 was homozygous. The main clinical presentation of cases with THAP1 mutations was early-onset (<30 years) dystonia in the craniocervical region or the limbs (8 of 9 patients). There was phenotypic variability with laryngeal or oromandibular dystonia present in 3 cases. Four of 9 THAP1 cases developed generalized dystonia. CONCLUSIONS: The number of THAP1 mutations has been significantly expanded, indicating an uncommon but important cause of dystonia. Coding mutations account for 9 of 362 dystonia cases, indicating a mutation frequency of 2.5% of dystonia cases in the population that we have screened. The majority of cases reported here with THAP1 mutations had craniocervical- or limb-onset segmental dystonia, but we also identified 1 homozygous THAP1 mutation, associated initially with writer's dystonia and then developing segmental dystonia. Three of our patients had a nonsense or frameshift THAP1 mutation and the clinical features of laryngeal or oromandibular dystonia. These data suggest that early-onset dystonia that includes the involvement of the larynx or face is frequently associated with THAP1 mutations.
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