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Publication Detail
Mitochondrial respiration is required to provide amino acids during fermentative proliferation of fission yeast
Abstract
Abstract When glucose is available, many organisms repress mitochondrial respiration in favour of aerobic glycolysis, or fermentation in yeast, that suffices for ATP production. Fission yeast cells, however, rely partially on respiration for rapid proliferation under fermentative conditions. Here we determined the limiting factors that require respiratory function during fermentation. When the electron transport chain was inhibited, supplementation with arginine was necessary and sufficient to restore rapid cell proliferation. Accordingly, a systematic screen for mutants growing poorly without arginine identified not only mutants defective in arginine synthesis but also mutants defective in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of respiration triggered a drop in intracellular levels of arginine and amino acids derived from the Krebs-cycle metabolite alpha-ketoglutarate: glutamine, lysine and glutamic acid. Conversion of arginine into these amino acids was required for rapid proliferation when the respiratory chain was blocked. The respiratory block triggered an immediate gene-expression response diagnostic of TOR inhibition, which was muted by arginine supplementation or without the AMPK-activating kinase Ssp1. The TOR-controlled proteins featured biased composition of amino acids reflecting their shortage after respiratory inhibition. We conclude that respiration supports rapid proliferation in fermenting cells of fission yeast by boosting the supply of Krebs-cycle derived amino acids.
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