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Publication Detail
Mechanistic in situ and ex situ studies of phase transformations in molecular co-crystals.
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
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  • Authors:
    Clout A, Buanz A, Pang Y, Tsui W-M, Yan D, Parkinson G, Prior T, Bucar D-K, Gaisford S, Williams G
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  • Keywords:
    differential scanning calorimetry, hyphenated techniques, pharmaceutical co-crystals, synchrotron X-ray diffraction
Co-crystallisation is widely explored as a route to improve the physical properties of pharmaceutical active ingredients, but little is known about the fundamental mechanisms of the process. Here we apply a novel hyphenated differential scanning calorimetry - X-ray diffraction technique to mimic the commercial hot melt extrusion process, and explore the heat-induced synthesis of four new co-crystals containing isonicotinamide. These comprise a 1:1 co-crystal with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2:1 and 1:2 systems with 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and a 1:1 crystal with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylactic acid. The formation of co-crystals during heating is complex mechanistically. In addition to co-crystallisation, conversions between polymorphs of the co-former starting materials and co-crystal products are also observed. A subsequent study exploring the use of inkjet printing and milling to generate co-crystals revealed that the synthetic approach has a major effect on the co-crystal species and polymorphs produced.
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