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Publication Detail
Relationship between loneliness, social isolation and modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease: a latent class analysis.
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
  • Authors:
    Bu F, Steptoe A, Fancourt D
  • Publication date:
  • Journal:
    J Epidemiol Community Health
  • Status:
  • Country:
  • PII:
  • Language:
  • Keywords:
    ageing, cardiovascular disease, cohort studies, health behaviour, social factors in
BACKGROUND: There is growing research into the effects of psychological and social factors such as loneliness and isolation on cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it is unclear whether individuals with particular clusters of CVD risk factors are more strongly affected by loneliness and isolation. This study aimed to identify latent clustering of modifiable risk factors among adults aged 50+ and explore the relationship between loneliness, social isolation and risk factor patterns. METHODS: Data from 8218 adults of English Longitudinal Study of Ageing were used in latent class analyses to identify latent classes of cardiovascular risk factors and predictors of class membership. RESULTS: There were four latent classes: low-risk (30.2%), high-risk (15.0%), clinical-risk (42.6%) and lifestyle-risk (12.2%) classes. Loneliness was associated with a greater risk of being in the high-risk class (relative risk ratio (RRR) 2.40, 95% CI 2.40 to 1.96) and lifestyle-risk class (RRR 1.36, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.67) and a lower risk of being in the clinical-risk class (RRR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.98) relative to the low-risk class. Social disengagement, living alone and low social contact were also differentially associated with latent class memberships. CONCLUSION: These findings supplement our existing knowledge of modifiable risk factors for CVD by showing how risk factors cluster together and how the risk patterns are related to social factors, offering important implications for clinical practice and preventive interventions.
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