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Publication Detail
A simplified charge projection scheme for long-range electrostatics in ab initio QM/MM calculations.
In a previous work [Pan et al., Molecules 23, 2500 (2018)], a charge projection scheme was reported, where outer molecular mechanical (MM) charges [>10 Å from the quantum mechanical (QM) region] were projected onto the electrostatic potential (ESP) grid of the QM region to accurately and efficiently capture long-range electrostatics in ab initio QM/MM calculations. Here, a further simplification to the model is proposed, where the outer MM charges are projected onto inner MM atom positions (instead of ESP grid positions). This enables a representation of the long-range MM electrostatic potential via augmentary charges (AC) on inner MM atoms. Combined with the long-range electrostatic correction function from Cisneros et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 143, 044103 (2015)] to smoothly switch between inner and outer MM regions, this new QM/MM-AC electrostatic model yields accurate and continuous ab initio QM/MM electrostatic energies with a 10 Å cutoff between inner and outer MM regions. This model enables efficient QM/MM cluster calculations with a large number of MM atoms as well as QM/MM calculations with periodic boundary conditions.
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