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Publication Detail
Ca2+ -permeable AMPA receptors and their auxiliary subunits in synaptic plasticity and disease.
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
    Article
  • Authors:
    Cull-Candy SG, Farrant M
  • Publication date:
    21/02/2021
  • Journal:
    J Physiol
  • Status:
    Published
  • Country:
    England
  • Language:
    eng
  • Keywords:
    AMPA receptors, Auxiliary subunits, CKAMP44, GSG1L, GluA2, TARPs, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, anoxia, auxiliary subunits, calcium-permeable AMPA receptors, cocaine, cornichon, fear conditioning, ionotropic glutamate receptors, malignant glioma, neurological disorder, pain, stargazin, synaptic plasticity, synaptic transmission
Abstract
AMPA receptors are tetrameric glutamate-gated ion channels that mediate a majority of fast excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. They exist as calcium-impermeable (CI-) and calcium-permeable (CP-) subtypes, the latter of which lacks the GluA2 subunit. CP-AMPARs display an array of distinctive biophysical and pharmacological properties that allow them to be functionally identified. This has revealed that they play crucial roles in diverse forms of central synaptic plasticity. Here we summarise the functional hallmarks of CP-AMPARs and describe how these are modified by the presence of auxiliary subunits that have emerged as pivotal regulators of AMPARs. A lasting change in the prevalence of GluA2-containing AMPARs, and hence in the fraction of CP-AMPARs, is a feature in many maladaptive forms of synaptic plasticity and neurological disorders. These include modifications of glutamatergic transmission induced by inflammatory pain, fear conditioning, cocaine exposure, and anoxia-induced damage in neurons and glia. Furthermore, defective RNA editing of GluA2 can cause altered expression of CP-AMPARs and is implicated in motor neuron damage (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and the proliferation of cells in malignant gliomas. A number of the players involved in CP-AMPAR regulation have been identified, providing useful insight into interventions that may prevent the aberrant CP-AMPAR expression. Furthermore, recent molecular and pharmacological developments, particularly the discovery of TARP subtype-selective drugs, offer the exciting potential to modify some of the harmful effects of increased CP-AMPAR prevalence in a brain region-specific manner. Abstract Figure legend AMPARs containing GluA2 (red subunits) are Ca2+ -impermeable (CI-AMPARs). Those that lack GluA2 are Ca2+ -permeable (CP-AMPARs) and are implicated in diverse forms of synaptic plasticity and disease. Both native CP- and CI-AMPARs contain various auxiliary subunits (shown as yellow, green or turquoise) that affect AMPAR function and play a role in the regulation of relative CP-/CI-AMPAR prevalence. Image based on PDB model 6NJM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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