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Publication Detail
Clinical Importance of Left Atrial Infiltration in Cardiac Transthyretin Amyloidosis
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Authors:
    Bandera F, Martone R, Chacko L, Ganesananthan S, Gilbertson JA, Ponticos M, Lane T, Martinez-Naharro A, Whelan C, Quarta C, Rowczenio D, Patel R, Razvi Y, Lachmann H, Wechelakar A, Brown J, Knight D, Moon J, Petrie A, Cappelli F, Guazzi M, Potena L, Rapezzi C, Leone O, Hawkins PN, Gillmore JD, Fontana M
  • Publisher:
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
  • Publication date:
    01/01/2022
  • Pagination:
    17, 29
  • Journal:
    JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging
  • Volume:
    15
  • Issue:
    1
  • Medium:
    Print-Electronic
  • Status:
    Published
  • Country:
    United States
  • PII:
    S1936-878X(21)00512-X
  • Language:
    English
  • Keywords:
    Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Cardiac & Cardiovascular Systems, Radiology, Nuclear Medicine & Medical Imaging, Cardiovascular System & Cardiology, amyloidosis, atrial function, atrial histology, atrial stiffness, atrial strain, echocardiography, CARDIOVASCULAR MAGNETIC-RESONANCE, PROGNOSTIC VALUE, SINUS RHYTHM, THROMBI, DIAGNOSIS, FAILURE
  • Notes:
    THI S I S AN OP EN AC C E S S ART I C L E UNDE R T HE CC BY -NC-ND L I C ENS E ( h t t p : / / c r e a t i v e commo n s . o r g / l i c e n s e s / b y - n c - n d / 4 .0/ ) .
Abstract
Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize left atrial (LA) pathology in explanted hearts with transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM); LA mechanics using echocardiographic speckle-tracking in a large cohort of patients with ATTR-CM; and to study the association with mortality. Background: The clinical significance of LA involvement in ATTR-CM is of great clinical interest. Methods: Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the presence, type, and extent of amyloid and associated changes in 5 explanted ATTR-CM atria. Echo speckle tracking was used to assess LA reservoir, conduit, contractile function, and stiffness in 906 patients with ATTR-CM (551 wild-type (wt)-ATTR-CM; 93 T60A-ATTR-CM; 241 V122I-ATTR-CM; 21 other). Results: There was extensive ATTR amyloid infiltration in the 5 atria, with loss of normal architecture, vessels remodeling, capillary disruption, and subendocardial fibrosis. Echo speckle tracking in 906 patients with ATTR-CM demonstrated increased atrial stiffness (median [25th-75th quartile] 1.83 [1.15-2.92]) that remained independently associated with prognosis after adjusting for known predictors (lnLA stiff: HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.03-1.49; P = 0.029). There was substantial impairment of the 3 phasic functional atrial components (reservoir 8.86% [5.94%-12.97%]; conduit 6.5% [4.53%-9.28%]; contraction function 4.0% [2.29%-6.56%]). Atrial contraction was absent in 22.1% of patients whose electrocardiograms showed sinus rhythm (SR) “atrial electromechanical dissociation” (AEMD). AEMD was associated with poorer prognosis compared with patients with SR and effective mechanical contraction (P = 0.0018). AEMD conferred a similar prognosis to patients in atrial fibrillation. Conclusions: The phenotype of ATTR-CM includes significant infiltration of the atrial walls, with progressive loss of atrial function and increased stiffness, which is a strong independent predictor of mortality. AEMD emerged as a distinctive phenotype identifying patients in SR with poor prognosis.
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