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Publication Detail
A non-empirical intermolecular force-field for trinitrobenzene and its application in crystal structure prediction.
An anisotropic atom-atom distributed intermolecular force-field (DIFF) for rigid trinitrobenzene (TNB) is developed using distributed multipole moments, dipolar polarizabilities, and dispersion coefficients derived from the charge density of the isolated molecule. The short-range parameters of the force-field are fitted to first- and second-order symmetry-adapted perturbation theory dimer interaction energy calculations using the distributed density-overlap model to guide the parameterization of the short-range anisotropy. The second-order calculations are used for fitting the damping coefficients of the long-range dispersion and polarization and also for relaxing the isotropic short-range coefficients in the final model, DIFF-srL2(rel). We assess the accuracy of the unrelaxed model, DIFF-srL2(norel), and its equivalent without short-range anisotropy, DIFF-srL0(norel), as these models are easier to derive. The model potentials are contrasted with empirical models for the repulsion-dispersion fitted to organic crystal structures with multipoles of iterated stockholder atoms (ISAs), FIT(ISA,L4), and with Gaussian Distributed Analysis (GDMA) multipoles, FIT(GDMA,L4), commonly used in modeling organic crystals. The potentials are tested for their ability to model the solid state of TNB. The non-empirical models provide more reasonable relative lattice energies of the three polymorphs of TNB and propose more sensible hypothetical structures than the empirical force-field (FIT). The DIFF-srL2(rel) model successfully has the most stable structure as one of the many structures that match the coordination sphere of form III. The neglect of the conformational flexibility of the nitro-groups is a significant approximation. This methodology provides a step toward force-fields capable of representing all phases of a molecule in molecular dynamics simulations.
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