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Publication Detail
A Brownian ratchet model for DNA loop extrusion by the cohesin complex
Abstract
AbstractThe cohesin complex topologically encircles DNA to promote sister chromatid cohesion. Alternatively cohesin extrudes DNA loops, thought to reflect chromatin domain formation. Here, we propose a structure-based model explaining both activities, supported by biochemical experiments. ATP and DNA binding to cohesin promote conformational changes that guide DNA through a kleisin gate into a DNA gripping state. Two HEAT-repeat DNA binding modules, associated with cohesin’s heads and hinge, are now juxtaposed. ATP hydrolysis disassembles the gripping state, allowing unidirectional hinge module movement to complete topological DNA entry. Without initial kleisin gate passage, biased hinge module motion during gripping state resolution creates a Brownian ratchet that drives loop extrusion. Molecular-mechanical simulations of gripping state formation and resolution cycles recapitulate experimentally observed DNA loop extrusion characteristics. Our model extends to asymmetric and symmetric loop extrusion, as well as z-loop formation. Loop extrusion by biased Brownian fluctuations has important implications for chromosomal cohesin function.
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