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Publication Detail
Diet-induced iron deficiency in rats impacts small intestinal calcium and phosphate absorption
Aims: Recent reports suggest that iron deficiency impacts both intestinal calcium and phosphate absorption, although the exact transport pathways and intestinal segment responsible have not been determined. Therefore, we aimed to systematically investigate the impact of iron deficiency on the cellular mechanisms of transcellular and paracellular calcium and phosphate transport in different regions of the rat small intestine. Methods: Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on a control or iron deficient diet for two weeks and changes in intestinal calcium and phosphate uptake were determined using the in situ intestinal loop technique. The circulating levels of the hormonal regulators of calcium and phosphate were determined by ELISA, while the expression of transcellular calcium and phosphate transporters, and intestinal claudins were determined using qPCR and western blotting. Results: Diet-induced iron deficiency significantly increased calcium absorption in the duodenum but had no impact in the jejunum and ileum. In contrast, phosphate absorption was significantly inhibited in the duodenum and to a lesser extent the jejunum, but remained unchanged in the ileum. The changes in duodenal calcium and phosphate absorption in the iron deficient animals were associated with increased claudin 2 and 3 mRNA and protein levels, while levels of parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor-23 and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 were unchanged. Conclusion: We propose that iron deficiency alters calcium and phosphate transport in the duodenum. This occurs via changes to the paracellular pathway, whereby upregulation of claudin 2 increases calcium absorption and upregulation of claudin 3 inhibits phosphate absorption.
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