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Publication Detail
The Phenomenon of Exquisite Motor Control in Tic Disorders and its Pathophysiological Implications
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
    Review
  • Authors:
    Ganos C, Neumann WJ, Müeller-Vahl KR, Bhatia KP, Hallett M, Haggard P, Rothwell J
  • Publication date:
    19/03/2021
  • Journal:
    Movement Disorders
  • Status:
    Published
  • Print ISSN:
    0885-3185
Abstract
© 2021 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society The unifying characteristic of movement disorders is the phenotypic presentation of abnormal motor outputs, either as isolated phenomena or in association with further clinical, often neuropsychiatric, features. However, the possibility of a movement disorder also characterized by supranormal or enhanced volitional motor control has not received attention. Based on clinical observations and cases collected over a number of years, we here describe the intriguing clinical phenomenon that people with tic disorders are often able to control specific muscle contractions as part of their tic behaviors to a degree that most humans typically cannot. Examples are given in accompanying video documentation. We explore medical literature on this topic and draw analogies with early research of fine motor control physiology in healthy humans. By systematically analyzing the probable sources of this unusual capacity, and focusing on neuroscientific accounts of voluntary motor control, sensory feedback, and the role of motor learning in tic disorders, we provide a novel pathophysiological account explaining both the presence of exquisite control over motor output and that of overall tic behaviors. We finally comment on key questions for future research on the topic and provide concluding remarks on the complex movement disorder of tic behaviors. © 2021 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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