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Publication Detail
Brain plasticity mechanisms underlying motor control reorganization: Pilot longitudinal study on post-stroke subjects
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
    Article
  • Authors:
    Gandolla M, Niero L, Molteni F, Guanziroli E, Ward NS, Pedrocchi A
  • Publication date:
    05/03/2021
  • Pagination:
    1, 17
  • Journal:
    Brain Sciences
  • Volume:
    11
  • Issue:
    3
  • Status:
    Published
Abstract
Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) has demonstrated to improve walking ability and to induce the carryover effect, long-lasting persisting improvement. Functional magnetic resonance imaging has been used to investigate effective connectivity differences and longitudinal changes in a group of chronic stroke patients that attended a FES-based rehabilitation program for foot-drop correction, distinguishing between carryover effect responders and non-responders, and in comparison with a healthy control group. Bayesian hierarchical procedures were employed, involving nonlinear models at within-subject level—dynamic causal models—and linear models at between-subjects level. Selected regions of interest were primary sensorimotor cortices (M1, S1), supplementary motor area (SMA), and angular gyrus. Our results suggest the following: (i) The ability to correctly plan the movement and integrate proprioception information might be the features to update the motor control loop, towards the carryover effect, as indicated by the reduced sensitivity to pro-prioception input to S1 of FES non-responders; (ii) FES-related neural plasticity supports the active inference account for motor control, as indicated by the modulation of SMA and M1 connections to S1 area; (iii) SMA has a dual role of higher order motor processing unit responsible for complex movements, and a superintendence role in suppressing standard motor plans as external conditions changes.
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