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Publication Detail
Access routes, devices and guidance methods for intrapericardial delivery in cardiac conditions.
Drug deposition into the intrapericardial space is favourable for achieving localised effects and targeted cardiac delivery owing to its proximity to the myocardium as well as facilitating optimised pharmacokinetic profiles and a reduction in systemic side effects. Access to the pericardium requires invasive procedures but the risks associated with this have been reduced with technological advances, such as combining transatrial and subxiphoid access with different guidance methods. A variety of introducer devices, ranging from needles to loop-catheters, have also been developed and validated in pre-clinical studies investigating intrapericardial delivery of therapeutic agents. Access techniques are generally well-tolerated, self-limiting and safe, although some rare complications associated with certain approaches have been reported. This review covers these access techniques and how they have been applied to the delivery of drugs, cells, and biologicals, demonstrating the potential of intrapericardial delivery for treatments in cardiac arrhythmia, vascular damage, and myocardial infarction.
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