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Publication Detail
Neurological development of children who are HIV-exposed and uninfected.
Widespread use of antiretroviral drugs for pregnant/breastfeeding females with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has led to declining vertical transmission. Despite being HIV-uninfected, the increasing number of children who are HIV-exposed and uninfected (CHEU) often present with developmental alterations. We review seminal and recent evidence on the neurological development of CHEU and associations with early life HIV/antiretroviral exposure. Our conceptual model highlights the numerous exposures and universal risk factors for CHEU developmental disorders. Early studies suggest a significant association between HIV exposure and neurological abnormalities, varying according to the burden of HIV-specific exposures and other risk factors. More recent observations from the modern era are inconsistent, although some studies suggest specific antiretrovirals may adversely affect neurological development of CHEU. As the CHEU population continues to grow, alongside simultaneous increases in types and combinations of antiretrovirals used in pregnancy, long-term monitoring of CHEU is necessary for understanding the effects of HIV/antiretroviral exposure on CHEU developmental outcomes.
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