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Publication Detail
Household availability of dietary fats and cardiovascular disease and mortality: prospective evidence from Russia.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this analysis was to examine the prospective association between household availability of lard, butter, margarine and vegetable oil with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence in a general population sample in Russia. METHODS: Data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey were used. 6618 adult individuals with no previous CVD who were recruited for the study in 1994 and followed-up in subsequent years were included in the analysis. Household availability of lard, butter, margarine and vegetable oil were assessed at baseline with questions on whether these food items were purchased by the participants' family. Self-reported information on heart attack or stroke (CVD) and death reported by another household member were used as outcome. RESULTS: Over the median follow-up of 11 years, 1787 participants died or reported incident CVD. In the multivariable adjusted survival models, household availability of lard was significantly associated with the combined outcome of CVD incidence and/or death (OR in the high vs. no availability categories: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.05-1.62). The associations with butter (1.06; 0.93-1.20), margarine (1.18; 0.94-1.47) and vegetable oil (0.92; 0.80-1.06) were not statistically significant. When self-reported CVD and mortality were examined separately, the association regarding lard was particularly strong for CVD (1.52; 1.11-2.09). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that lard, a dietary fat of animal origin traditionally used in Eastern European cooking, is of a particular concern regarding CVD risk. Replacing it with plant-based oils in cooking practices is strongly recommended.
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