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Publication Detail
Radiopaque drug-eluting embolisation beads as fiducial markers for stereotactic liver radiotherapy.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of using radiopaque (RO) beads as direct tumour surrogates for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in patients with liver tumours after transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE). METHODS: A novel vandetanib-eluting RO bead was delivered via TACE as part of a first-in-human clinical trial in patients with either hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Following TACE, patients underwent simulated radiotherapy imaging with 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging. RO beads were contoured using automated thresholding, and feasibility of matching between the simulated radiotherapy planning dataset (AVE-IP image from 4D data) and CBCT scans assessed. Additional kV, MV, helical CT and CBCT images of RO beads were obtained using an in-house phantom. Stability of RO bead position was assessed by comparing 4D-CT imaging to CT scans taken 6-20 days following TACE. RESULTS: Eight patients were treated and 4D-CT and CBCT images acquired. RO beads were visible on 4D-CT and CBCT images in all cases and matching successfully performed. Differences in centre of mass of RO beads between CBCT and simulated radiotherapy planning scans (AVE-IP dataset) were: 2.0 mm mediolaterally, 1.7 mm anteroposteriorally, 3.5 mm craniocaudally. RO beads in the phantom were visible on all imaging modalities assessed. RO bead position remained stable up to 29 days post-TACE. CONCLUSION: RO beads are visible on IGRT imaging modalities, showing minimal artefact. They can be used for on-set matching with CBCT and remain stable over time. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The role of RO beads as fiducial markers for stereotactic liver radiotherapy is feasible and warrants further exploration as a combination therapy approach.
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