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Publication Detail
Liposome Sterile Filtration Characterization via X-ray Computed Tomography and Confocal Microscopy
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
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  • Authors:
    Johnson T, Jones K, Iacoviello F, Turner S, Jackson N, Zourna K, Welsh J, Shearing P, Hoare M, Bracewell D
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  • Keywords:
    Sterile Filtration, Liposomes, X-ray computed tomography, Confocal microscopy
Two high resolution, 3D imaging techniques were applied to visualize and characterize sterilizing grade dual-layer filtration of liposomes, enabling membrane structure to be related with function and performance. Two polyethersulfone membranes with nominal retention ratings of 650 nm and 200 nm were used to filter liposomes of an average diameter of 143 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.1. Operating conditions including differential pressure were evaluated. X-ray computed tomography at a pixel size of 63 nm was capable of resolving the internal geometry of each membrane. The respective asymmetry and symmetry of the upstream and downstream membranes could be measured, with pore network modeling used to identify pore sizes as a function of distance through the imaged volume. Reconstructed 3D digital datasets were the basis of tortuous flow simulation through each porous structure. Confocal microscopy visualized liposome retention within each membrane using fluorescent dyes, with bacterial challenges also performed. It was found that increasing pressure drop from 0.07 MPa to 0.21 MPa resulted in differing fluorescent retention profiles in the upstream membrane. These results highlighted the capability for complementary imaging approaches to deepen understanding of liposome sterilizing grade filtration.
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