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Publication Detail
Time-course studies by neutron solution scattering and biochemical assays of the aggregation of human low-density lipoprotein during Cu2+-induced oxidation
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
    Journal Article
  • Authors:
    Meyer DF, Mayans MO, Groot PHE, Suckling KE, Bruckdorfer KR, Perkins SJ
  • Publication date:
  • Pagination:
    417, 426
  • Journal:
    Biochemical Journal
  • Volume:
  • Issue:
  • Status:
  • Print ISSN:
The oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is recognized to be a key event in the development of atherosclerotic plaques on artery walls. The characteristics of LDL oxidized by cells of the artery wall can be imitated by the addition of Cu2+ ions to initiate lipid peroxidation in LDL. Neutron scattering of LDL in 2H2O buffers enables the time course of changes in the gross structure of LDL during oxidation to be continuously monitored under conditions close to physiological. Oxidation of LDL [2 mg of apolipoprotein B (apoB) protein/ml] was studied in the presence of 6.4, 25.6 and 51.2 μmol of Cu2+/g of apoB by incubation at 37°C for up to 70 h. Neutron Guinier analyses showed that the radius of gyration R(G) (indicative of size) and the forward-scattered intensity at zero angle I(0) (indicative of M(r)) continuously increased during oxidation, indicating that LDL had aggregated. Both the rate of aggregation and the change in R(G) and I(0) values after 10 and 50 h increased with Cu2+ concentration. Distance-distribution functions P(r) showed that, within 4 h, the maximum dimension of LDL increased from 23 to 55 nm. The P(r) curves of oxidatively modified LDL exhibited two peaks at 10-12 nm and 26 nm. The 10-12 nm peak corresponds to native LDL, and the 26 nm peak is assigned to the initial formation of LDL dimers and trimers and their progression to form higher oligomers. The growth of the 26 nm peak depended on Cu2+ concentration. Particle-size-distribution functions D(v)(r) suggested that the polydisperse spherical structure of LDL ceased to exist after 30 h, at which point the LDL samples underwent a phase separation. Related, but not identical, changes in the I(Q) and P(r) curves were observed when native LDL was self-aggregated by brief vortexing. Parallel assessment of LDL protein modification by SDS/PAGE showed increased aggregation and degradation of apoB with increased Cu2+ concentrations, and that the main apoB protein band had diminished after 2-8 h, depending on the amount of Cu2+ added. The uptake and degradation of oxidized 125I-labelled LDL by mouse peritoneal macrophages occurred maximally within the first 10 h, and increased in proportion to the Cu2+ concentration. ApoB protein broke down within the first 10 h of oxidation, and this is the period when scavenger receptors on macrophages can recognize and internalize oxidized LDL. Within 10 h, the protein-lipid interactions responsible for the spherical LDL structure became destabilized by protein fragmentation. After 30 h, LDL formed large vesicular aggregates with no regular structure. In summary, neutron-scattering data show that LDL aggregation is continuous during oxidation.
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