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Publication Detail
Ultrasound metrology and phantom materials for validation of photoacoustic thermometry
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  • Authors:
    Bakaric M
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High intensity focused ultrasound is an emerging non-invasive cancer therapy during which a focused ultrasound beam is used to destroy cancer cells within a confined volume of tissue. In order to increase its successful implementation in practice, an imaging modality capable of accurately mapping the induced temperature rise in tissue is necessary. Photoacoustic thermometry, a rapidly emerging technique for non-invasive temperature monitoring, exploits the temperature dependence of the Gr√ľneisen parameter of tissues, which leads to changes in the recorded photoacoustic signal amplitude with temperature. However, the implementation of photoacoustic thermometry approaches is hindered by a lack of rigorous validation. This includes both the equipment and methodology used. This work investigates the effect of temperature on ultrasound transducers used in photoacoustic thermometry imaging as well as characterisation of potential phantom materials for its validation. The variation in transducer sensitivity with temperature is investigated using two approaches. The first one utilises a reference transducer whose output power is known as a function of temperature to characterise the sensitivity of the hydrophone. As the knowledge of variability of transducer output with temperature is not readily available, two standard metrology techniques using radiation force balances and laser vibrometry are extended beyond room temperature to characterise the effect of temperature on the output of PZT tranducers. For the second approach to transducer sensitivity calibration, a novel method is developed utilising water as a laser-generated ultrasound source and validated using the self-reciprocity calibration method. The calibrated hydrophone is then used to characterise the relevant temperature-dependent properties of several phantom materials in a custom-built setup. The measurement results are used to determine the most suitable phantom for photoacoustic thermometry. Finally, the phantom is heated and imaged in a proof-of-concept photoacoustic thermometry setup using a linear array. These contributions are of vital importance for allowing the translation of photoacoustic thermometry into clinical practice.
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