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Publication Detail
Electroclinical Features and Long-term Seizure Outcome in Patients With Eyelid Myoclonia With Absences.
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
  • Authors:
    Irelli EC, Cocchi E, Ramantani G, Caraballo RH, Giuliano L, Yilmaz T, Morano A, Panagiotakaki E, Operto FF, Giraldez BG, Silvennoinen K, Casciato S, Comajuan M, Balestrini S, Fortunato F, Coppola A, Di Gennaro G, Labate A, Sofia V, Kluger GJ, Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité DGA, Gambardella A, Baykan B, Sisodiya SM, Arzimanoglou A, Striano P, Di Bonaventura C, EMA study group
  • Publication date:
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  • Status:
  • Country:
    United States
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Eyelid myoclonia with absences (EMA) is a generalized epilepsy syndrome whose prognosis and clinical characteristics are still partially undefined. We investigated electroclinical endophenotypes and long-term seizure outcome in a large cohort of EMA patients. METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective study, EMA patients with ≥5 years of follow-up were included. We investigated prognostic patterns and sustained terminal remission (STR), along with their prognostic factors. Moreover, a two-step cluster analysis was used to investigate the presence of distinct EMA endophenotypes. RESULTS: We included 172 patients, with a median age at onset of 7 years (interquartile range (IQR) 5-10) and a median follow-up duration of 14 years (IQR 8.25-23.75). Sixty-six patients (38.4%) displayed a non-remission pattern, whereas remission and relapse patterns were encountered in 56 (32.6%) and 50 (29.1%) subjects. Early epilepsy onset, history of febrile seizures (FS) and eyelid myoclonia (EM) status epilepticus significantly predicted a non-remission pattern according to multinomial logistic regression analysis. STR was achieved by 68 (39.5%) patients with a mean latency of 14.05 years (SD ± 12.47). Early epilepsy onset, psychiatric comorbidities, and a history of FS and generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) were associated with a lower probability of achieving STR according to a Cox regression proportional hazards model. Antiseizure medication (ASM) withdrawal was attempted in 62/172 patients, and seizures relapsed in 74.2%. Cluster analysis revealed two distinct clusters with 86 patients each. Cluster 2, which we defined as "EMA-plus", was characterized by an earlier age at epilepsy onset, higher rate of intellectual disability, EM status epilepticus, generalized paroxysmal fast activity, self-induced seizures, FS, and poor ASM response, whereas Cluster 1, the "EMA-only" cluster, was characterized by a higher rate of seizure remission and more favorable neuropsychiatric outcome. DISCUSSION: Early epilepsy onset was the most relevant prognostic factor for poor treatment response. A long latency between epilepsy onset and ASM response was observed, suggesting the impact of age-related brain changes in EMA remission. Finally, our cluster analysis showed a clear-cut distinction of EMA patients into an EMA-plus insidious subphenotype and an EMA-only benign cluster that strongly differed in terms of remission rates and cognitive outcomes.
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