Institutional Research Information Service
UCL Logo
Please report any queries concerning the funding data grouped in the sections named "Externally Awarded" or "Internally Disbursed" (shown on the profile page) to your Research Finance Administrator. Your can find your Research Finance Administrator at https://www.ucl.ac.uk/finance/research/rs-contacts.php by entering your department
Please report any queries concerning the student data shown on the profile page to:

Email: portico-services@ucl.ac.uk

Help Desk: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/ras/portico/helpdesk
Publication Detail
Pharmacological modelling of dissociation and psychosis: an evaluation of the Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale and Psychotomimetic States Inventory during nitrous oxide ('laughing gas')-induced anomalous states
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Authors:
    Piazza GG, Iskandar G, Hennessy V, Zhao H, Walsh K, McDonnell J, Terhune DB, Das RK, Kamboj SK
  • Publisher:
    Springer Science and Business Media LLC
  • Publication date:
  • Journal:
  • Medium:
  • Status:
  • Country:
  • PII:
  • Language:
  • Keywords:
    CADSS, Dissociation, Dissociative anaesthetic, Glutamate, Ketamine, NMDA, Nitrous oxide, Psychosis, Psychotomimesis
  • Notes:
    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.
RATIONALE: A significant obstacle to an improved understanding of pathological dissociative and psychosis-like states is the lack of readily implemented pharmacological models of these experiences. Ketamine has dissociative and psychotomimetic effects but can be difficult to use outside of medical and clinical-research facilities. Alternatively, nitrous oxide (N2O) - like ketamine, a dissociative anaesthetic and NMDAR antagonist - has numerous properties that make it an attractive alternative for modelling dissociation and psychosis. However, development and testing of such pharmacological models relies on well-characterized measurement instruments. OBJECTIVES: To examine the factor structures of the Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS) and Psychotomimetic States Inventory (PSI) administered during N2O inhalation in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Secondary analyses of data pooled from three previous N2O studies with healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Effect sizes for N2O-induced dissociation and psychotomimesis were comparable to effects reported in experimental studies with sub-anaesthetic ketamine in healthy volunteers. Although, like ketamine, a three-factor representation of N2O-induced dissociation was confirmed, and a more parsimonious two-factor model might be more appropriate. Bayesian exploratory factor analysis suggested that N2O-induced psychosis-like symptoms were adequately represented by two negative and two positive symptom factors. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated minimal item overlap between the CADSS and PSI. CONCLUSION: N2O and ketamine produce psychometrically similar dissociative states, although parallels in their psychosis-like effects remain to be determined. The CADSS and PSI tap largely non-overlapping experiences under N2O and we propose the use of both measures (or similar instruments) to comprehensively assess anomalous subjective states produced by dissociative NMDAR antagonists.
Publication data is maintained in RPS. Visit https://rps.ucl.ac.uk
 More search options
UCL Researchers
Clinical, Edu & Hlth Psychology
Clinical, Edu & Hlth Psychology
Div of Psychology & Lang Sciences
University College London - Gower Street - London - WC1E 6BT Tel:+44 (0)20 7679 2000

© UCL 1999–2011

Search by