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Publication Detail
What Causes Desmoplastic Reaction in Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Neoplasms?
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Authors:
    Ratnayake GM, Laskaratos F-M, Mandair D, Caplin ME, Rombouts K, Toumpanakis C
  • Publisher:
  • Publication date:
  • Journal:
    Current Oncology Reports
  • Medium:
  • Status:
  • Country:
    United States
  • Print ISSN:
  • PII:
  • Language:
  • Keywords:
    Desmoplasia, Fibrosis, Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours, Tumour microenvironment, Growth factors
  • Notes:
    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mesenteric desmoplasia in small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (SINENs) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In this paper, we discuss the development of desmoplasia in SINENs. RECENT FINDINGS: The fibrotic reactions associated with these tumours could be limited to the loco-regional environment of the tumour and/or at distant sites. Mesenteric fibrotic mass forms around a local lymph node. Formation of desmoplasia is mediated by interactions between the neoplastic cells and its microenvironment via number of profibrotic mediators and signalling pathways. Profibrotic molecules that are mainly involved in the desmoplastic reaction include serotonin, TGFβ (transforming growth factor β) and CTGF (connective tissue growth factor), although there is some evidence to suggest that there are a number of other molecules involved in this process. Desmoplasia is a result of autocrine and paracrine effects of multiple molecules and signalling pathways. However, more research is needed to understand these mechanisms and to develop targeted therapy to minimise desmoplasia.
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