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Publication Detail
Calcite Kinetics for Spiral Growth and Two-Dimensional Nucleation
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Authors:
    Darkins R, Kim Y-Y, Green DC, Broad A, Duffy DM, Meldrum FC, Ford IJ
  • Publisher:
    American Chemical Society (ACS)
  • Publication date:
  • Journal:
    Crystal Growth & Design
  • Status:
  • Print ISSN:
  • Language:
  • Keywords:
    Calcite, Crystallization, Crystals, Nucleation, Supersaturation
  • Notes:
    Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society. This is an Open Access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Calcite crystals grow by means of molecular steps that develop on {10.4} faces. These steps can arise stochastically via two-dimensional (2D) nucleation or emerge steadily from dislocations to form spiral hillocks. Here, we determine the kinetics of these two growth mechanisms as a function of supersaturation. We show that calcite crystals larger than ∼1 μm favor spiral growth over 2D nucleation, irrespective of the supersaturation. Spirals prevail beyond this length scale because slow boundary layer diffusion creates a low surface supersaturation that favors the spiral mechanism. Sub-micron crystals favor 2D nucleation at high supersaturations, although diffusion can still limit the growth of nanoscopic crystals. Additives can change the dominant mechanism by impeding spiral growth or by directly promoting 2D nucleation.
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