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Publication Detail
Characterizing and explaining the impact of disease-associated mutations in proteins without known structures or structural homologs
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Authors:
    Sen N, Anishchenko I, Bordin N, Sillitoe I, Velankar S, Baker D, Orengo C
  • Publisher:
    Oxford University Press (OUP)
  • Publication date:
  • Journal:
    Briefings in Bioinformatics
  • Medium:
  • Status:
  • Country:
  • PII:
  • Language:
  • Keywords:
    protein structure modeling, mutation, AlphaFold, RoseTTAFold, disease-associated, functional site
  • Notes:
    Copyright © The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Mutations in human proteins lead to diseases. The structure of these proteins can help understand the mechanism of such diseases and develop therapeutics against them. With improved deep learning techniques, such as RoseTTAFold and AlphaFold, we can predict the structure of proteins even in the absence of structural homologs. We modeled and extracted the domains from 553 disease-associated human proteins without known protein structures or close homologs in the Protein Databank. We noticed that the model quality was higher and the Root mean square deviation (RMSD) lower between AlphaFold and RoseTTAFold models for domains that could be assigned to CATH families as compared to those which could only be assigned to Pfam families of unknown structure or could not be assigned to either. We predicted ligand-binding sites, protein–protein interfaces and conserved residues in these predicted structures. We then explored whether the disease-associated missense mutations were in the proximity of these predicted functional sites, whether they destabilized the protein structure based on ddG calculations or whether they were predicted to be pathogenic. We could explain 80% of these disease-associated mutations based on proximity to functional sites, structural destabilization or pathogenicity. When compared to polymorphisms, a larger percentage of disease-associated missense mutations were buried, closer to predicted functional sites, predicted as destabilizing and pathogenic. Usage of models from the two state-of-the-art techniques provide better confidence in our predictions, and we explain 93 additional mutations based on RoseTTAFold models which could not be explained based solely on AlphaFold models.
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