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Publication Detail
An analytical quality by design approach towards a simple and novel HPLC-UV method for quantification of the antifibrotic peptide N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline.
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
    Article
  • Authors:
    Kenneth Ho HM, Sembi S, Abukhamees S, Day RM, Craig DQM
  • Publisher:
    Elsevier Masson
  • Publication date:
    22/06/2022
  • Pagination:
    114793
  • Journal:
    Analytical Biochemistry
  • Article number:
    114793
  • Medium:
    Print-Electronic
  • Status:
    Published
  • Country:
    United States
  • Print ISSN:
    0003-2697
  • PII:
    S0003-2697(22)00249-4
  • Language:
    English
  • Keywords:
    Ac-SDKP, Analytical quality by design, Design of experiment, HPLC, Method development and validation
Abstract
N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl proline (Ac-SDKP) is a tetrapeptide possessing anti-fibrotic, angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and immunomodulatory properties. Currently, the main method to quantify the peptide is liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), both of which are labour intensive and require expensive equipment and consumables. Furthermore, these techniques are generally utilised to detect very low or trace concentrations, such as in biological samples. The use of high concentrations of analyte might overload the extraction column or the separation column in LC-MS/MS or the ELISA plates, so the response could be a non-linear relationship at high analyte concentrations. Thus, they are not ideal for formulation development where detection of dose-equivalent concentrations is typically required. Therefore, a cost-effective, simple, and accurate quantification method for the peptide at a higher concentration needs to be developed. In this study, a simple and novel HPLC-UV method is proposed and validated using an Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) approach. The method is first screened and optimised using chromatographic responses including capacity factor, resolution, tailing factor, and theoretical plate counts, fulfilling the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) Q2 (R1) guidelines. The resultant optimised chromatography conditions utilised 10 mM phosphate buffer at pH 2.5 and acetonitrile as mobile phases, starting at 3% (v/v) acetonitrile and 97% (v/v) buffer and increasing to 9.7% (v/v) acetonitrile and 90.3% (v/v) buffer over 15 minutes at a flow rate of 1 mL/min at the column temperature of 25 °C. The injection volume is set at 10 μL and the VWD detector wavelength is 220 nm. The method established is suitable for detecting the peptide at a relatively high concentration, with a quantifiable range from 7.8 μg/mL to 2.0 mg/mL. In addition, the use of a relatively simple HPLC-UV approach could significantly reduce costs and allow easier access to quantify the peptide concentration. A limitation of this method is lower sensitivity compared with using LC-MS/MS and ELISA methods but running costs are lower and the methodology is simpler. The method is capable to quantify the peptide in various tested matrix solutions, with successful quantitation of the peptide in samples obtained from in vitro drug release study in PBS and from a chitosan-TPP nanogels formulation. Therefore, the method developed here offers a complementary approach to the existing quantification methods, quantifying this peptide at increased concentrations in simple to intermediately complex matrix solutions, such as HBSS, DMEM and FluoroBrite cell culture media.
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