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Publication Detail
Factors affecting antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae following vaccination introduction.
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
  • Authors:
    Watkins ER, Kalizang'Oma A, Gori A, Gupta S, Heyderman RS
  • Publication date:
  • Journal:
    Trends in Microbiology
  • Status:
  • Country:
  • PII:
  • Language:
  • Keywords:
    Streptococcus pneumoniae, antimicrobial resistance, evolution, vaccination
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis, and septicaemia worldwide. Pneumococcal antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been highlighted by the WHO as an important public health concern, with emerging serotypes showing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Indeed, although the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has been associated with an overall decline in pneumococcal AMR, there have been increases in prevalence of potentially disease-causing AMR serotypes not targeted by vaccination. Here, we discuss a variety of evolutionary mechanisms at the host, pathogen, and environmental levels that may contribute to changes in the prevalence of pneumococcal AMR in the post-vaccination era. The relative importance of these factors may vary by population, pneumococcal lineage, geography, and time, leading to the complex relationship between vaccination, antibiotic use, and AMR.
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