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Publication Detail
Learning and memory function in young people with and without perinatal HIV in England
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Authors:
    Arenas-Pinto A, Judd A, Melvin D, Le Prevost M, Foster C, Sturgeon K, Winston A, Thompson LC, Gibb DM, Castro H, Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV (AALPHI) Steeri
  • Publisher:
    Public Library of Science (PLoS)
  • Publication date:
  • Journal:
    PLoS One
  • Volume:
  • Issue:
  • Article number:
  • Medium:
  • Status:
  • Country:
    United States
  • PII:
  • Language:
  • Keywords:
    Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV (AALPHI) Steering Committee
  • Notes:
    Copyright: © 2022 Arenas-Pinto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Learning and memory are important for successful education and career progression. We assess these functions in young people (YP) with perinatal HIV (PHIV) (with or without a previous AIDS-defining illness) and a comparable group of HIV-negative YP. 234 PHIV and 68 HIV-negative YP completed 9 tests; 5 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Toolbox tests (2 executive function, 1 speed of information processing, 2 memory); 2 Hopkins Verbal Learning Test Revised (HVLT-R) (learning (L), delayed recall (R)), and 2 verbal application measures. Z-scores for each test were calculated using normative data and averaged by domain where appropriate. The effect of predictors on test scores in the three domains with the lowest z-scores were analysed using linear regression. 139(59%) and 48(71%) PHIV and HIV-negative YP were female, 202(86%) and 52(76%) Black, and median age was 19 [17, 21] and 18 [16, 21] years respectively. 55(24%) PHIV had a previous Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) class C AIDS-defining diagnosis (PHIV/C). For HVLT-R, there was a trend towards PHIV/C YP having the lowest mean z-scores (L -1.5 (95% CI -1.8,-1.2), R -1.7 (-2.0,-1.4)) followed by PHIV without a CDC C diagnosis (L -1.3 (-1.4,-1.1), R -1.4 (-1.5,-1.2)) and then the HIV-negative group (L -1.0 (-1.3,-0.7), R -1.1 (-1.3,-0.8)); all were greater than 1 SD below the reference mean. The same trend was seen for verbal application measures; however, z-scores were within 1 SD below the reference mean. NIH Toolbox tests were similar for all groups. In multivariable analyses PHIV/C and Black ethnicity predicted lower HVLT-R scores. Black ethnicity also predicted lower executive function scores, however each year increase in age predicted higher scores. In conclusion, cognitive performance in verbal learning and recall fell below population normative scores, and was more pronounced in PHIV/C, supporting wider findings that earlier antiretroviral therapy initiation, before the occurrence of AIDS-defining conditions, may protect aspects of cognitive development.
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