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Publication Detail
Measurement and rapid assessment of indoor air quality at mass gathering events to assess ventilation performance and reduce aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
  • Authors:
    Malki-Epshtein L, Adzic F, Roberts B, Hathway EA, Iddon C, Mustafa M, Cook M
  • Publisher:
    SAGE Publications
  • Publication date:
  • Journal:
    Building Services Engineering Research and Technology: an international journal
  • Status:
  • Print ISSN:
  • Keywords:
    CO2 monitoring, COVID-19, IAQ, Indoor Air Quality, infection control, post-occupancy, SARS-CoV-2
To assess risk factors for COVID-19 transmission and address the closure of mass gathering events since March 2020, the UK Government ran the Events Research Programme (ERP), following which it reopened live events in sports, music, and culture in July 2021. We report the rapid post-occupancy evaluation of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and associated long-range airborne transmission risk conducted in the Environmental Study of the ERP. Ten large venues around the UK were monitored with CO2 sensors at a high spatial and temporal resolution during 90 events. An IAQ Index based on CO2 concentration was developed, and all monitored spaces were classified in bands from A to G based on their average and maximum CO2 concentrations from all events. High resolution monitoring and the IAQ Index depicted the overall state of ventilation at live events, and allowed identification of issues with ventilation effectiveness and distribution, and of spaces with poor ventilation and the settings in which long-range airborne transmission risk may be increased. In numerous settings, CO2 levels were found to follow patterns relating to event management and specific occupancy of spaces around the venues. Good ventilation was observed in 90% of spaces monitored for given occupancies.
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