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Publication Detail
A Compact CNN-Based Speech Enhancement With Adaptive Filter Design Using Gabor Function And Region-Aware Convolution
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Authors:
    Abdullah S, Zamani M, Demosthenous A
  • Publisher:
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
  • Publication date:
  • Pagination:
    130657, 130671
  • Journal:
    IEEE Access
  • Volume:
  • Status:
  • Print ISSN:
  • Language:
  • Keywords:
    Adaptive filter design, activation analysis, convolutional neural network, Gabor filter, pruning, skip convolution, speech enhancement
  • Notes:
    This is an Open Access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Speech enhancement (SE) is used in many applications, such as hearing devices, to improve speech intelligibility and quality. Convolutional neural network-based (CNN-based) SE algorithms in literature often employ generic convolutional filters that are not optimized for SE applications. This paper presents a CNN-based SE algorithm with an adaptive filter design (named ‘CNN-AFD’) using Gabor function and region-aware convolution. The proposed algorithm incorporates fixed Gabor functions into convolutional filters to model human auditory processing for improved denoising performance. The feature maps obtained from the Gabor-incorporated convolutional layers serve as learnable guided masks (tuned at backpropagation) for generating adaptive custom region-aware filters. The custom filters extract features from speech regions (i.e., ‘region-aware’) while maintaining translation-invariance. To reduce the high cost of inference of the CNN, skip convolution and activation analysis-wise pruning are explored. Employing skip convolution allowed the training time per epoch to be reduced by close to 40%. Pruning of neurons with high numbers of zero activations complements skip convolution and significantly reduces model parameters by more than 30%. The proposed CNN-AFD outperformed all four CNN-based SE baseline algorithms (i.e., a CNN-based SE employing generic filters, a CNN-based SE without region-aware convolution, a CNN-based SE trained with complex spectrograms and a CNN-based SE processing in the time-domain) with an average of 0.95, 1.82 and 0.82 in short-time objective intelligibility (STOI), perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) and logarithmic spectral distance (LSD) scores, respectively, when tasked to denoise speech contaminated with NOISEX-92 noises at −5, 0 and 5 dB signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs).
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